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Indian Polity & Governance: Complete Study Material
The Complete Study Material on the “Indian Polity Governance” is designed in such a way that it covers almost all the important sections like Indian Constitution, Fundamental rights Fundamental Duties, Parliament Indian Judiciary, Union State Executive Constitutional Non-Constitutional bodies. These Study notes would help you in preparing the fundamentals for all the competitive examinations.
We are discussing here Making of the Indian Constitution. This is important because many times questions are asked about the Various sources the constitution was taken and also many questions are asked from the constituent assembly.
Why the Constitution of India PDF Notes Important?
Constitution of India PDF Notes is very very important for any competitive exams so read carefully, many questions asked from this chapter. we will update all questions asked in various exams.
Making of the Indian Constitution
- It was M.N Roy who proposed the idea of an independent constituent assembly for India in 1934.
- The constituent assembly was formed as per the guidelines suggested by the Cabinet Mission Plan, 1946. The mission was headed by Pethick Lawrence and included two other members apart from him – Stafford Cripps and A.V Alexander.
- The total strength of the assembly was 389. However, after partition only 299 remained. It was partly elected and partly nominated body.
- The elections to form the assembly took place in July-August 1946 and the process was completed by November 1946. The first meeting of the assembly took place on 9th December 1946 and was attended by 211 members.
- Dr. Sachhidanand Sinha became the temporary president of the assembly following the French practice.
- On 11th December 1946, Dr. Rajendra Prasad and H.C Mukherji were elected as President and Vice-President respectively.
- Sir B.N Rau was appointed as the constitutional advisor to the assembly.
- On 13th December 1946, Pt. Nehru moved the Objectives resolution which later went on to become the Preamble of the constitution in slightly modified form. The resolution was unanimously adopted on 22nd January 1947.
- The Constituent Assembly ratified India’s membership of the commonwealth in May 1949. Also, it adopted the National Song and National Anthem on 24th January 1950. Adopted the National Flag on 22nd July 1947.
- The assembly met for 11 sessions, took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to frame up the final draft, sat for 141 days in total and the draft constitution was considered for 114 days. Total amount incurred was around rupees 64 lakhs.
- The assembly had 15 women members which were reduced to 9 after partition.
- Some important committees of the constituent assembly along with their respective chairpersons are as follows:
- Union Powers Committee - Jawahar Lal Nehru
- Union Constitution Committee - Jawahar Lal Nehru
- Provincial Constitution Committee - Sardar Patel
- Drafting Committee - B.R Ambedkar
- Rules of Procedure Committee – Dr. Rajendra Prasad
- Steering Committee - Dr. Rajendra Prasad
- Flag Committee - J.B. Kripalani
- The following were the members of the Drafting Committee-
- Dr. B.R Ambedkar (Chairman)
- Alladi Krishnaswamy Ayyar
- Dr. K.M Munshi
- N. Gopalaswamy Ayyangar
- Syed Mohammad Saadullah
- N Madhava Rau
- TT Krishnamachari
- The final draft of the constitution was adopted on 26th November 1949 and it contained 8 schedules, 22 parts, and 395 articles.
VARIOUS SOURCES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION
|The Government of India Act of 1935||Parliamentary government, Rule of Law, legislative procedure, single citizenship, cabinet system, prerogative writs, parliamentary privileges, and bicameralism|
|British Constitution||Federal Scheme, Office of the governor, Judiciary, Public Service Commissions, Emergency provisions and administrative details|
|US Constitution||Fundamental rights, independence of the judiciary, judicial review, impeachment of the president, removal of Supreme Court and high court judges and post of vice-president|
|Irish Constitution||Directive Principles of State Policy, the nomination of members to Rajya Sabha and method of election of the president|
|Canadian Constitution||Federation with a strong Centre, vesting of residuary powers in the Centre, the appointment of state governors by the Centre, and advisory jurisdiction of the Supreme Court|
|Australian Constitution||Concurrent List, freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse, and the joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament|
|Weimar Constitution of Germany||Suspension of Fundamental Rights during Emergency|
|Soviet Constitution (USSR, now Russia)||Fundamental duties and the idea of justice (social, economic and political) in the Preamble|
|French Constitution||Republic and the ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity in the Preamble|
|South African Constitution||Procedure for amendment of the Constitution and election of members of Rajya Sabha|
|Japanese Constitution||The procedure established by Law|
Here are some Important Questions that were previously asked in the exam:
1. The Constituent Assembly was set up on ____?
A. 6thDec 1946
B. 15th August 1945
C. 26th January 1950
D. None of these
2. Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution on
A. 15th August 1947
B. 26th November 1949
C. 26th January 1950
D. 30th January 1948
3.The constituent assembly that framed constitution was set up under:
A. Government of India act 1935
B. India Independence act 1947
C. Cabinet mission plan
D. Cripps mission proposal
4. Who was the president of the Constituent Assembly?
A. B.N. Rau
B. Rajendra Prasad
C. Sachchidanand Sinha
D. Jawaharlal Nehru
5. How many members were elected in the Constituent Assembly?
D. None of these
6. Who presented the Objectives Resolution in the Constituent Assembly?
A. B.R Ambedkar
B. Mahatma Gandhi
C. Jawahar Lal Nehru
D. Vallabhai Patel
7. The Chairman on the functions of the Constituent Assembly was?
A. B.R Ambedkar
B. Jawaharlal Nehru
C. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
D. G.V. Mavalankar
8. The Constitutional advisor to the Constituent Assembly was
A. Sachidanand Sinha
B. K.M. Munshi
C. B.N. Rao
D. T.T. Krishnamachari
9. Consider the following statements regarding the Constituent Assembly:
1) The Constituent Assembly comprised of 292 members from provinces and 93 members from the Princely States.
2) The idea of Constituent Assembly was first time mooted by Jawahar Lal Nehru.
3) The Constituent Assembly had eight major Committees on different subjects.
Which of the above options are correct:
A. 1 only
B. 2 and 3 only
C. 1 and 3 only
D. 1, 2 and 3
10. The symbol of the Constituent Assembly of India was
D. None of these
11. Indian constitution substantially borrows from:
A. British constitution
B. The government of India act 1935
C. American Constitution
D. Indian council act 1909
12.‘The freedom of trade and commerce within the country and between the states in Indian constitution’ is influenced by which of the following country’s constitution?
A. French Constitution
B. Canadian Constitution
C. Australian Constitution
D. Constitution of the Soviet Union
13. In the Indian Constitution, the idea of the Comptroller and Auditor General’s office has been taken from_______
A. Canadian Constitution
B. American Constitution
C. British Constitution
D. Japanese Constitution
14. The A quasi-federal form of government of the Indian Constitution is borrowed from the __________ constitution.
B. United States
15. Directive Principles of State Policy in the Indian Constitution were taken from the Constitution of
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